Vine pruning is carried out by the vine grower with the aim of limiting the natural growth of the vegetative part and improving the quality of the grapes.
This practice is essential to obtain good results and must be carried out at specific times, and winter is one of them. The plant is in dormancy and vegetative rest, which makes it the ideal time.
It is a plant that starts to overflow at the beginning of spring and ends its cycle with leaf fall in autumn.
Every vine always has to be pampered by the human hand, which is why a series of processes are carried out on the plant, including pruning.
This technique is necessary, as we manage to give shape to the vineyard. And at the same time favour the correct development of the vegetation and the fruit.
In addition to the main winter pruning, several pruning operations are carried out throughout the year, such as spring green pruning. This is a fundamental action for obtaining healthy, quality and ripe grapes, essential elements for a good wine.
Types of pruning
The aim of this technique is to reduce the length and number of shoots so that the vine produces fewer bunches, but of greater quality and thickness. This technique extends the life of the vine and ensures the harvest from one year to the next. It also makes it possible to make the best possible use of the space where it is grown.
- Training pruning
When we plant the vine, the first pruning is fundamental, as it is this that will determine the shape and type of growth of the plant. They can vary according to the climate and the type of vine. This is usually done during the first three or four years and always in winter and spring.
- Winter pruning
As its name suggests, this type is carried out in winter, when the leaves have fallen. And just before the new shoots come out.
It is used to cut back the two-year-old wood, encourages the regeneration of the plant and also serves to remove the shoots from the previous season.
- Green pruning
It is only carried out if the shoots have grown too much, to reduce the plant’s yield and obtain better quality grapes. In addition, it complements winter pruning.
It is carried out at the end of spring, once the vine has budded. Shoots, excess leaves, buds and poorly positioned shoots are removed.
- Fruiting pruning
This is carried out when the vine has definitively acquired its shape and serves to control the growth of the plant and maintain its shape.